Publications are separated by research theme. The most up-to-date list is at Pubmed.

Media highlights on recent publications can be found here.

Online searchable databases are available for rodent and human CNS glia and aging astrocytes.



Research Papers

  1. Joshi AU, Minhas PS, Liddelow SA, Haileselassie B, Andreasson KI, Dorn GW 2nd, Mochly-Rosen D (2019) Fragmented mitochondria released from microglia trigger A1 astrocytic response and propagate inflammatory neurodegeneration. Nat Neurosci 22(10):1635-1648. PMID: 31551592.

  2. Hartmann K, Sepulveda-Falla D, Rose IVL, Madore C, Muth C, Matschke J, Butovsky O, Liddelow S, Glatzel M, Krasemann S (2019) Complement 3+-astrocytes are highly abundant in prion diseases, but their abolishment led to an accelerated disease course and early dysregulation of microglia. Acta Neuropathol Commun 7(1):83. PMID: 31118110.

  3. Gibson EM, Nagaraja S, Ocampo A, Tam LT, Wood LS, Pallegar PN, Greene JJ, Geraghty AC, Goldstein AK, Ni L, Woo PJ, Barres BA, Liddelow S, Vogel H, Monje M (2018) Methotrexate chemotherapy induces persistent tri-glial dysregulation that underlies chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment. Cell 176(1-2):43-55. PMID: 30528430.

  4. Lananna BV, Nadarajah CJ, Izumo M, Cedeño MR, Xiong DD, Dimitry J, Tso CF, McKee CA, Griffin P, Sheehan PW, Haspel JA, Barres BA, Liddelow SA, Takahashi JS, Karatsoreos IN, Musiek ES (2018) Cell-autonomous regulation of astrocyte activation by the circadian clock protein BMAL1. Cell Rep 25(1):1-9.e5. PMID: 30282019. [bioRxiv 362814 [Preprint] July 5, 2018. Available from:].

  5. Yun SP, Kam TI, Panicker N, Kim S, Oh Y, Park JS, Kwon SH, Park YJ, Karuppagounder SS, Park H, Kim S, Oh N, Kim NA, Lee S, Brahmachari S, Mao X, Lee JH, Kumar M, An D, Kang SU, Lee Y, Lee KC, Na DH, Kim D, Lee SH, Roschke VV, Liddelow SA, Mari Z, Barres BA, Dawson VL, Lee S, Dawson TM, Ko HS (2018) Block of A1 astrocyte conversion by microglia is neuroprotective in models of Parkinson's disease. Nature Med 24(7):931–938. PMID: 29892066.

  6. Clarke LE, Liddelow SA, Chakraborty C, Münch AE, Heiman M, Barres BA (2018) Normal aging induces A1-like astrocyte reactivityProc Natl Acad Sci USA 115(8):E1896-E1905. PMID: 29437957.

  7. Vainchtein ID, Chin G, Cho FS, Kelley KW, Miller JG, Chien EC, Liddelow SA, Nguyen PT, Nakao-Inoue H, Dorman LC, Akil O, Joshita S, Barres BA, Paz JT, Molofsky AB, Molofsky AV (2018) Astrocyte-derived interleukin-33 promotes microglial synapse engulfment and neural circuit developmentScience 359(6381):1269-1273. PMID: 29420261.

  8. Liddelow SA, Guttenplan KA, Clarke LE, Bennett FC, Bohlen CJ, Schirmer L, Bennett ML, Münch AE, Chung W-S, Peterson TC, Wilton DK, Frouin A, Napier BA, Panicker N, Kumar M, Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Buckwalter MS, Rowitch DH, Stevens B, Barres BA (2017) Activated microglia induce neurotoxic reactive astrocytes via Il-1α, TNFα, and C1q. Nature 541:481-487. PMID: 28099414.

  9. Shi Y, Yamada K, Liddelow SA, Smith ST, Zhao L, Luo W, Tsai R, Spina S, Grinberg L, Rojas J, Gallardo G, Wang K, Roh J, Robinson G, Finn MB, Jiang H, Sullivan P, Wood M, Baufeld C, Wood M, Sutphen C, McCue L, Xiong C, Del-Aguila J, Morris J, Cruchaga C, Fagan A, Miller B, Boxer B, Seeley W, Butovsky O, Barres B, Paul S, Holtzman D (2017) ApoE4 markedly exacerbates tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tauopathy. Nature 549:523-527. PMID: 28959956.

  10. Bennett ML, Bennett FC, Liddelow SA, Ajami B, Zamanian JL, Fernhoff NB, Mulinyawe SB, Bohlen CJ, Adil A, Tucker A, Weissman IL, Chang EF, Li G, Grant GA, Hayden-Gephart M, Barres BA (2016) New tools for studying microglia in the mouse and human CNSProc Natl Acad Sci USA 113(12):E1738-1746. PMID: 26884166.

  11. Zhang Y, Chen K, Sloan SA, Bennett ML, Scholze AR, O'Keeffe S, Phatnani HP, Guarnieri P, Caneda C, Ruderisch N, Deng S, Liddelow SA, Zhang C, Daneman R, Maniatis T, Barres BA, Wu JQ (2014) An RNA-sequencing transcriptome and splicing database of glia, neurons, and vascular cells of the cerebral cortexJ Neurosci 34(36):11929-11947. PMID: 25186741.

Reviews and Commentaries

  1. Bennett FC, Liddelow SA (2019) Microglia metabolic breakdown drives Alzheimer's pathology. Cell Metab 30(3):405-406. PMID: 31484050.

  2. Liddelow SA, Sofroniew MV (2019) Astrocytes usurp neurons as a disease focus. Nat Neurosci 22(4):512-513. PMID: 


  3. Sadick JS, Liddelow SA (2019) Don't forget astrocytes when targeting Alzheimer's disease. Br J Pharmacol 176(18):3585-3598. PMID: 30636042.

  4. Liddelow SA (2019) Modern approaches to investigating non-neuronal aspects of Alzheimer’s disease. FASEB J 33(2):1528-1535. PMID: 30703873.

  5. Guttenplan KA, Liddelow SA (2018) Astrocytes and microglia: Models and tools. J Exp Med 216(1):71-83. PMID: 30541903.

  6. Guttenplan KA, Liddelow SA (2017) Play It Again, SAM: Macrophages Control Peripheral Fat MetabolismTrends Immunol PMID: 29290566.

  7. Clarke LE, Liddelow SA (2017) Neurobiology: Diversity reaches the starsNature 548:396–397. PMID: 28836597.

  8. Liddelow SA, Barres BA (2017) Reactive astrocytes: production, function, and therapeutic potentialImmunity 46(6):957-967. PMID: 28636962.

  9. Liddelow SA, Barres BA (2016) Not everything is scary about a glial scar. Nature 32(7598):182-183. PMID: 27027287.

  10. Liddelow SA, Hoyer D (2016) Astrocytes: adhesion molecules and immunomodulation. Curr Drug Targets 17(16):1871-1881. PMID: 26721411.

  11. Liddelow SA, Barres BA (2015) SnapShot: Astrocytes in Health and Disease. Cell 162(5):1170-1170.e1. PMID: 26317476.



Research Papers

  1. Saunders NR, Noor NM, Dziegielewska KM, Wheaton BJ, Liddelow SA, Steer DL, Ek CJ, Habgood MD, Wakefield MJ, Lindsay H, Truettner J, Miller RD, Smith AI, Dietrich WD (2014) Age-Dependent Transcriptome and Proteome Following Transection of Neonatal Spinal Cord of Monodelphis domestica (South American Grey Short-Tailed Opossum). PLoS ONE 9(6):e99080. PMID: 24914927.


Blood-Brain / blood-csf Barrier

Research Papers

  1. Saunders NR, Dziegielewska KM, Møllgård K, Habgood MD, Wakefield MJ, Lindsay H, Stratzielle N, Ghersi-Egea JF, Liddelow SA (2015) Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus: a transcriptome study. Front Neurosci 9:123. PMID: 25972776.

  2. Whish S, Dziegielewska KM, Møllgård K, Noor NM, Liddelow SA, Habgood MD, Richardson SJ, Saunders NR (2015) The inner CSF-brain barrier: developmentally controlled access to the brain via intercellular junctions. Front Neurosci 9:16. PMID: 25729345.

  3. Liddelow SA, Dzięgielewska KM, Møllgård K, Whish SC, Noor NM, Wheaton BJ, Gehwolf R, Wagner A, Traweger A, Bauer H, Bauer HC, Saunders NR (2014) Cellular specificity of the blood-CSF barrier for albumin transfer across the choroid plexus epithelium. PLoS ONE 9(9):e106592. PMID: 25211495.

  4. Kratzer I, Liddelow SA, Saunders NR, Dziegielewska KM, Strazielle N, Ghersi-Egea J-F (2013) Developmental changes in the transcriptome of the rat choroid plexus in relation to neuroprotection. Fluids Barriers CNS 10(1):25. PMID: 23915922.

  5. Liddelow SA, Dziegielewska KM, Ek CJ, Habgood MD, Bauer H, Bauer H-C, Lindsay H, Wakefield MJ, Ghersi-Egea J-F, Strazielle N, Kratzer I, Møllgård K, Saunders NR (2013) Mechanisms that determine the internal environment of the developing brain: a transcriptomic, functional and ultrastructural approach. PLoS ONE 8(7):e65629. PMID: 23843944.

  6. Liddelow SA, Temple S, Møllgård K, Gehwolf R, Wagner A, Bauer J, Bauer H-C, Phoenix TN, Dziegielewska KM, Saunders NR (2012) Molecular characterisation of transport mechanisms at the developing mouse blood-CSF interface: a transcriptome approach. PLoS ONE 7(3): e33554. PMID: 22457777.

  7. Liddelow SA, Dziegielewska KM, Møllgård K, Phoenix TN, Temple S, VandeBerg JL, Saunders NR (2011) Sparc/osteonectin, and endogenous mechanism for targeting albumin to the blood-CSF interface during brain development. Eur J Neurosci 34(7):1062-1073. PMID: 21899600.

  8. Liddelow SA, Dziegielewska KM, VandeBerg JL, Noor NM, Potter AM, Saunders NR (2011) Modification of protein transfer across blood/cerebrospinal fluid barrier in response to altered plasma protein composition during development. Eur J Neurosci 13(3):391-400. PMID: 21138490.

  9. Liddelow SA, Dziegielewska KM, VandeBerg JL, Saunders NR (2010) Development of the lateral ventricular choroid plexus in a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res 7:16. PMID: 20920364.

  10. Ek CJ, Wong A, Liddelow SA, Johansson PA, Dziegielewska KM, Saunders NR (2010) Efflux mechanisms at the developing brain barriers: ABC-transporters in the fetal and postnatal rat. Toxicol Lett 197(1):51-59. PMID: 20466047.

  11. Liddelow SA, Dziegielewska KM, Ek CJ, Johansson PA, Potter AM, Saunders NR (2009) Cellular transport of macromolecules across the developing choroid plexus of Monodelphis domestica. Eur J Neurosci 29:251-266. PMID: 19200232.

  12. Johansson PA, Dziegielewska KM, Ek CJ, Habgood MD, Liddelow SA, Potter AM, Stolp HB, Saunders NR (2006) Blood-CSF barrier function in the rat embryo. Eur J Neurosci 24:65-76. PMID: 16800861.

Reviews and Commentaries

  1. Liddelow SA (2017) Perspective: Bypassing the barrier: new routes for delivery of macromolecules to the central nervous systemJ Physiol PMID: 29171665.

  2. Stolp HB, Liddelow SA, Saunders NR (2016) Editorial: Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Brain Barrier Mechanisms. Front Neurosci 10:41. PMID: 26909020.

  3. Liddelow SA (2015) Development of the choroid plexus and blood-CSF barrier. Front Neurosci 9:32. PMID: 25784848.

  4. Stolp HB, Liddelow SA, Sá-Pereira I, Dziegielewska KM, Saunders NR (2013) Immune responses at brain barriers and implications for brain development and neurological function in later life. Front Integr Neurosci 7:61. PMID: 23986663.

  5. Saunders NR, Daneman R, Dziegielewska KM, Liddelow SA (2013) Transporters of the blood-brain and blood-CSF interfaces in development and in the adult. Mol Aspects Med 34(2-3):742–752. PMID: 23506907.

  6. Saunders NR, Liddelow SA, Dziegielewska KM (2012) Barrier mechanisms in the developing brain. Front Pharmacol 3:46. PMID: 22479246.

  7. Liddelow SA (2011) Fluids and Barriers of the CNS: a historical viewpoint. Cerebrospinal Fluid Res 8:2. PMID: 21349150.

  8. Bueter W, Saunders NR, Mallard C, Bauer HC, Stolp HB, Kavelaars A, Dammann O, NEUROBID consortium (Dammann O, Stangel M, Bueter W, Brinkhaus MJ, McGuinness N, Gressens P, Ghersi-Egea JF, Heijen C, Kavelaars A, Molnár Z, Stolp H, Anthony D, Johnson T, Neuhoff S, Saunders N, Dziegielewska K, Ek J, Liddelow S, Mallard C, Säcman K, Förster C, Speer C, Kleinschnitz C, Neuhaus W, Burek M, Strazielle N, Bauer HC, Bauer H) (2010) NEUROBID – an EU-funded project to study the developing brain barriers. Int J Dev Neurosci 28(5):411-412. PMID: 20412847.

  9. Johansson PA, Dziegielewska KM, Liddelow SA, Saunders NR (2008) The blood-CSF barrier explained: when development is not immaturity. BioEssays 30:237-248. PMID: 18293362.

Book Chapters

  1. Saunders NR, Ek CJ, Habgood MD, Johansson PA, Liddelow SA, Dziegielewska KM (2011) Assessing blood-CSF barrier function in the rat embryo. In: The blood-CSF barrier, biology and research protocols. Ed. Nag S. Humana Press, New Jersey.